Social Structures of Local Communities

Aymara. (1996.) Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Retrieved from:

This Encyclopedia article gives a detailed account of the Aymara people describing their identification, location, demography, and linguistic affiliation. It goes in depth on different aspects of their history and cultural relations, settlements, economy, kinship, marriage and family, sociopolitical organization, as well as their religion and expressive culture. The article provides a good foundation for understanding of the background of the culture, the community, and how it functions.

Bolivia Constitution of 7 February 2009. Chp. 7. Art. 30, 289, 292

The Bolivian Constitution of 7 February 2009 centers around the idea of pluralism,  defining their democracy as one that is representative, participatory and communitarian, giving indigenous nations rights and power traditionally held only by the State. The  constitution cements the rights of the indigenous populations to self-government and self-determination. An entire chapter is devoted to indigenous rights, including rights to collective land ownership, traditional knowledge systems and the protection and sharing of benefits from natural resources. The constitution gives indigenous people the right to write their own statutes according to their own norms and procedures, as long as these do not violate any laws or the constitution. Indigenous communities can decide how to manage development—economic and otherwise. Fulfilling a long-standing demand of Bolivia's indigenous groups, the constitution provides the right of autonomous indigenous territories to carry out community justice according to their traditional practices—again, as long as government laws are not violated. This puts power back in the hands of the indigenous peoples and allows them to realize their social structures and communities according to their systems.


Foer, J. (2011, February 25) The island people: The seventh hidden wonder of South America." Slate Magazine. Retrieved from:

This article provides insight about the Uru in Puno, Peru, their history, and possible reasons for why they moved to living man-made islands on the waters of Lake Titicaca. The account is from a visitor’s perspective: the author details how their community functions on being a tourist attraction. They use tourism not only as a way to make a good profit and provide opportunity for their children to go to school in Puno, or even college, but also as a means to preserve their culture. A realization made by the author that clarifies quite clearly the decision of the Uru for taking this stance on tourism is: “They've come to realize that the Disneyfication of their culture—under their own control, and on their own terms—is the only viable route to its conservation [...] The authentic story of the Uros is that they are trying to preserve their unique culture while giving themselves and their children the best possible future. If that means commodifying their culture and selling their unique story, so be it.”


Muth, R. T. (n.d.). Uru: The indigenous peoples of Peru’s Lake Titicaca. History Corps: University of Iowa. Retrieved from:

This essay also offers a brief overview of the Uru people who live on the waters of Lake Titicaca. It talks about the group's origins, language and history in regards to culture, economy, and social structures. The article discusses ways in which their adaptation to “modern” living and involvement in the tourist economy assists their efforts to preserve their culture such as dress, economic practice, and island living, as many indigenous populations across the globe face challenges posed by the external forces of globalization. The author notes that, while it’s not necessarily a model that could be recreated everywhere, the Uru’s ability and willingness to achieve balance between preserving their culture and involving themselves with “modern” society and reap the benefits of both should be duly noted.


Bishop, C. & Macieira, L. (2013, September 11).Uros people of Peru and Bolivia found to have distinctive genetic ancestries. National Geographic. Retrieved from:

This is a National Geographic genetic research report led by the Genographic Project that looks into the unique possible ancestral lines of the Uros people of Peru and Bolivia. Said research shows that the genetic history of the Uros predates the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores and may date back to the earliest settlement of the Altiplano of the central Andes some 3,700 years ago. It notes that despite the fact that the Uros today share many lineages with the surrounding Andean populations, they have maintained their own divergent genetic ancestry. It provides quotes from the authors, the research methods used and a little bit of background on the culture. It also references the extensive report that followed and elaborated on these research findings here:

Sandoval, J.R., Lacerda DR, Jota MSA, Salazar-Granara A, Vieira PPR, Acosta O, et al. (2013) The Genetic History of Indigenous Populations of the Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano: The Legacy of the Uros. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73006. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073006 from:


Binationaly Managed Lakes Annotated Bibliography

Global Environment Facility. (2001). Lake Tanganyika Strategic Action Programme.  Retrieved July

18, 2016 from

The Strategic Action Programme is an initiative proposed by Global Environment Facility (GEF), an organization that tackles the most pressing environmental issues, in cooperation with Burundi, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia. The key goal of the programme is to introduce an effective system to protect, preserve and promote biological diversity and sustainable use of the resources of Lake Tanganyika. Key risk issues, such as unsustainable fisheries, increased pollution, excessive sedimentation and habitat destruction, were identified after a series of studies.

The whole programme presupposed a wide stakeholder and public involvement into the process of designing the final Convention on sustainable management of Lake Tanganyika, that was signed by the governments of the involved countries in 2003 and ratified in 2008. The Convention defined the framework and actions that must have been taken in order to achieve the main goal of the project. Despite inumerous problems, such as a shortage of qualified people, slow identification on a national scale, and civil unrest in Burundi and in the DRC, the project achieved its primary goals. The key participants of the project, mainly GEF, UNDP (UN Development Programme), UNEP (UN Environmental Programme), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) drafted the Convention on sustainable management of the Lake. Moreover, a series of special studies and Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis were identified. The project participants came up with a number of recommendations for each state to address key issues.


Global Environment Facility. (2003). Reversal of Land and Water Degradation Trends In the Lake

Chad Basin Ecosystem: Establishment of Mechanisms for Land and Water Management.

Retrieved July 19, 2016 from


This project, proposed by Global Environment Facility (GEF), aimed at improving the environmental situation of Lake Chad Basin, the fourth largest lake in Africa. The Basin is managed by Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The research highlighted two sources of Lake degradation: climate and human. Due to climate change the lake’s level declined dramatically. Regarding human causes, short-term policy focus, non-existent or unsuitable environmental and water policies, rural poverty, poor intersectoral program coordination and limited public involvement were mentioned to be the key sources. Taking into consideration the results of the research, GEF in cooperation with representatives of the countries, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) and NGOs worked on studies and measures to reduce the Lake’s burden.

Although all the necessary measures were developed, the success of the whole project depends on the willingness of the countries to cooperate, especially in water management programs. The risks of the project were considered to be moderate to high. Participating countries had few economic resources, went through droughts, and suffered internal strifes. All of these caused governments to be more concerned about short-term goals, such as food production, sanitation or education, rather than long-term goals, such as the management of the lake basin’s resources.


African Development Bank Group (AFDB). (2015). Lakes Edward and Albert Fisheries and Water

Resources Management Project (LEAF II). Retrieved July, 21 2016 from–_ESMP_Summary.pdf

Lakes Edward and Albert (LEA) form a part of the Nile Basin, which defines an international boundary between the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Uganda. The LEA is part of the African Great Lakes. The LEA ecosystem faces a number of threats, including the overpopulation of fishing villages, leading to deforestation and the destruction of the wetlands. Additionally, the LEA ecosystem faces pollution from domestic sewage, agricultural production, and mining activities that worsen water quality. Moreover, fish diversity and stock in both lakes are constantly decreasing. All of the threats noted above heavily contribute to growing unemployment and increased poverty, especially in fishing villages.

The primary goal of LEAF II is to reduce poverty in fishing villages and establish sustainable livelihoods in the area through an effective control and management of the LEA basin waters, fisheries and environment. The project, prepared by the African Development Bank Group (AFDB) in 2015 and adopted in 2016, proposes several measures to achieve its primary goal. The water management component involves strengthening the transboundary management coordination of the lakes, as well as monitoring and assessing the water’s quality.


Lake Victoria Basin Commission. (2007). Strategic Action Plan (SAP) for the Lake Victoria Basin.

Retrieved on July 22, 2016 from

Lake Victoria Basin is shared among Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda. The creation of a Strategic Action Plan (SAP) was initiated by the East African Community (EAC) Secretariat as a part of preparation for the Lake Victoria Environmental Management Plan II (LVEMP II), which started in 2009 and will be over in 2017. The SAP determined 18 key transboundary issues, among which there were water pollution and eutrophication, domestic and industrial wastes, water balance and management of water usage.

The SAP tackles a shared regional concern, which defines a regional framework to achieve a sustainable use of the Basin water resources. Lake Victoria Basin wetlands, rivers and the Lake itself are heavily polluted by large quantities of raw or partially treated sewage and industrial effluent from human activities in an increased number of settlements. Different factories dump their wastes directly into the Lake or through wetlands. As a result, the Lake and its river system are experiencing ecological changes and deterioration in water quality. This trend is compounded by eutrophication and proliferation of plant species. To tackle these issues, regional and national measures were proposed.


Lake Huron Binational Partnership. (2004). Lake Huron Binational Cooperation. Action Plan.

Retrieved on July 25, 2016 from

Lake Huron Binational Partnership was established in 2002 by the Binational Executive Committee to manage environmental activities in the Lake Huron Basin. The Partnership includes the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environment Canada, Michigan’s Departments of Environmental Quality and Natural Resources, as well as Ontario’s Ministries of Environment and Natural Resources. The Lake Huron drainage basin is unique in the Great Lakes System. State borders of the United States and Canada divide the lake almost in half. The U.S. half is located in Michigan, the Canadian half is in the Province of Ontario. Several areas of concern were defined by the participants: Spanish Harbour (Ontario), Saginaw River/Bay (Michigan), St. Mary’s River (Binational area of concern).  

The research, carried out by the Partnership, defined a number of crucial issues, among which was a low-water level. Water levels in the Lake on both sides approached historical lows, this might have been a regional response to climate change.


World Bank. (2004). Aral Sea water and environmental management project: Implementation

completion report. Retrieved on July 26, 2016 from

The Aral Sea is a saltwater lake shared by Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Iran. Both Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan possess approximately equal length of the shore. Due to the climate change and inefficient usage of water, the lake started to die. As a solution, the Water and Environmental Management Project (WEMP) focuses on stabilizing the environment, improving monitoring and management of international waters, and building the capacity of regional institutions. Measures were put in place, such as the development of national and regional strategies of water and salt management, grants for pilot water conservation projects, and the purchase and install of water flow and water quality monitoring equipment at 25 transboundary water monitoring station. The established goals are broad and ambitious, not reflecting the political and economic capacities of the participating countries.


Science Diplomacy

Adler, P. S., Barrett, R. C., Bean, M. C., Birkhoff, J. E., Ozawa, C. P., & Rudin, E. B. (2000). Managing scientific and technical information in environmental cases, principles and practices for mediators and facilitators. Tucson, AZ: Resolv, U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution, & Western Justice Center Foundation. Retrieved from:

This document focuses on key principles and practices relevant to managing scientific and technical information in environmental conflicts. Based on information gathered by more than a hundred individuals, the objective is to advance both the practice and theory of environmental mediation and to launch further thinking and discussion on the issues raised. It highlights the importance of integrating science with other means of thought and inquiry.


Fähnrich, B. (2015, December 31). Science diplomacy: Investigating the perspective of scholars on politics–science collaboration in international affairs. Public Understanding of Science. Retrieved from:


This report examines a German effort to use scientists and politics together to improve international connections. This piece analyzes the interviews of various scientists who participated to get a better understanding of its success. This report focuses on a topic that has not received much attention previously.


Karl, H. A., & Turner, C. (2002).  “A model project for exploring the role of sustainability science in a citizen-centered, collaborative decision-making process.” Human Ecology Review, 9(1), 67–71.

This article focuses on how the interaction between science and society can lead to the development of solutions to environmental issues.  Two successful projects are highlighted: The 1998 USGS INCLUDE program and the Menlo Park based Creek Project, which both helped communities work together with scientists to improve local ecosystems. The article goes on to discuss the roles of scientific and societal groups in environmental conflict resolution.


Lord, K. M., & Turekian, V. C. (2007). Time for a new era of science diplomacy. Science, 315 (5813), 769–70. Retrieved from:


This article emphasizes the importance of scientists to participate in diplomatic efforts, especially for the purposes of combating negative global opinion of the United States. The authors conclude by stressing the importance of cooperation from the United States government and the departments of science and technology to open the nation up to another channel of diplomacy.


Turekian, V. C., & Neureiter, N. P. (2012). Science and diplomacy: The past as prologue. Science & Diplomacy, 1(1). Retrieved from:

This article discusses how science diplomacy frequently plays a vital role in international relations, cooperation and scientific discovery, and how it is an effective tool for bridging political  despite tensions in their political environment. The article notes that there is a shift in science diplomacy as it has moved from a government focus to an NGO focus.


Increasing Participation Among Indigenous and Local Communities

Boillat, S., & Berkes, F. (2013). Perception and interpretation of climate change among Quechua farmers of Bolivia: indigenous knowledge as a resource for adaptive capacity. Ecology and Society, 18(4): 21. Retrieved from:

An interesting article that looks at a case study involving two Quechua-speaking farmer communities from mountainous areas near Cochabamba, Bolivia. It talks about their perceptions of change and climate change and discusses the interpretations and their adaptive strategies. An example of this mentioned in the article is that some believe that climate change is due to a loss of values that are not necessarily environmental. They show that some people attribute climate change to different causes than do scientists, and that they postulate a direct relationship between values and climate. Another example referenced in the article mentions another study by a Dr. Orlove (the full study mentioned later in this bibliography) that looked at something called Andean ethnoclimatology, which is a rich set of indicators used for indigenous ways of predicting the weather, including plant and animal indicators as well as astronomical phenomena. The article notes that numerous generations of indigenous farmers of the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes have gathered in midwinter to observe the constellation Pleiades, also known as the Seven Sisters. It is said that if this star cluster appears big and bright, it is understood to predict abundant rains and good harvests the following summer. If the cluster appears small and dim, farmers anticipate poor rains. These predictions are considered strong enough to dictate the choice of crops and areas planted. It highlights the importance of indigenous knowledge as a component to adaptive capacity and to sustainable and cooperative action.


Expert Working Group on Indigenous Engagement with Science. (2013). Indigenous Engagement with Science: Towards Deeper Understandings. Rep. School of Indigenous Studies, University of Western Australia. Kingston: Inspiring Australia. 1-52. Retrieved from:

Though the report is specific to Australia, the approach suggested is relatable and applicable worldwide. In their findings, they authors seek urgent action across a range of initiatives. The group sees significant opportunities for government and industry to engage with indigenous peoples in ways that will maximize the potential for increased productivity in scientific activity. The most challenging recommendations refer to the urgent need to conserve and prevent further loss of Indigenous knowledge. They suggest application of resources to: protecting Indigenous languages; recognition of knowledge holders by tertiary education institutions and industries; facilitating knowledge and skill sharing between researchers and communities; and providing opportunities for Indigenous knowledge to generate economic benefit for Indigenous communities while protecting Indigenous cultural interests. With the protection of indigenous cultures at the forefront of action and explicit from the outset, cooperation is very likely.


Hoffman, A. J. (2012). Climate science as culture war. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved from:

This article poses interesting arguments on differing beliefs deeply rooted within the United States about the topic of climate change. The author explains cultural dimensions of the climate debate, outlines three possible paths by which the debate can progress, and describes specific techniques that can drive that debate toward broader consensus. The goal is for a broader consensus on climate change to formulate effective social, political, and economic solutions to the changing circumstances of the planet.


Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change in the Andes: An Indigenous Perspective on a Global Problem. Cusco, Peru: ©Asociación ANDES, 1-16. Retrieved from:  

The indigenous peoples of the Andes mountains are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to the close connection they have between their environment and their livelihoods, culture, spirituality and social systems.This article focuses on a workshop that brought together indigenous leaders and community members from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, as well as climate and social scientists, that took place in the Potato Park, Cusco, Peru on November 20-21, 2012. It illustrates the challenges that communities in the Andes are facing due to climate change and looks at traditional knowledge and practices as a foundation for indigenous resilience and includes powerful pictures.


Orlove, B. S., Chiang, J. C. H., & Cane,  M. A. (2002). Ethnoclimatology in the Andes: A cross-disciplinary study uncovers a scientific basis for the scheme Andean potato farmers traditionally use to predict the coming rains. American Scientist, vol 90. Retrieved from:

This study looks at a traditional indigenous practice where they use environmental indicators, in this particular case a constellation, to predict and make decisions about the coming seasons. The practice analyzed in the study is the event that takes place just after the winter solstice, when many indigenous farmers in the Andes gather together to look at the star cluster Pleiades in the constellation Taurus. The farmers believe that they can use the particular appearance of the Pleiades to forecast the timing and quantity of precipitation that will fall in the rainy season months later. Although this may appear to be an odd form of astrology and more like superstition, comparing it to the Groundhog’s Day ritual in the United States, the study notes that research has, in fact, uncovered its scientific basis. The article states that the apparent size and brightness of the Pleiades varies with the amount of thin, high cloud at the top of the troposphere, which in turn reflects the severity of El Niño conditions over the Pacific. Because rainfall in this region is generally sparse in El Niño years, this simple method provides a valuable forecast. Therefore, recognizing the value and validity of indigenous knowledge would make introducing a modern scientific approach less threatening.


Overdevest, C., Orr, C. H., & Stepenuck, K. (2004) Volunteer stream monitoring and local participation in natural resource issues. Human Ecology Review, Vol. 9. Retrieved from:

An approach mentioned in this article about adaptive management encourages citizens to ‘take measures’ and participate in helping to monitor the environment around them. It notes that by involving members of the community in science management, citizens gain understanding, form opinions, educate others on the topic and are able to influence and motivate political support or activity on the issue for new policies or changes. This method creates communal awareness and responsibility to the health of the environment and allows for the involvement of people at all levels in the society. Providing the community with knowledge and understanding in science gives voice to the people and equips for change at the grassroots level.  


Paige, K., Hattam, R., Rigney, L., Osborne, S., & Morrison, A. (2016). Strengthening indigenous participation and practice in STEM: University initiatives for equity and excellence. Adelaide, University of South Australia. Retrieved from:

This is a large report and literature review from a few universities in Australia about programs and initiatives surrounding indigenous involvement in continued learning. It aims to understand how Australian universities are currently developing initiatives to improve successful higher education pathways for indigenous students in the disciplines of science and mathematics. This project arises in response to the substantial underrepresentation of indigenous students studying STEM subjects in Australian universities. Indigenous student enrolments in fields requiring strong mathematics and scientific literacy are low in relation to other disciplines, whereas more visible and longer-established disciplines within Indigenous communities such as Arts, Education and Society and Culture enjoy much higher rates of student participation. Understanding why even modern indigenous peoples such as these university students are more inclined to fields of study that are non STEM related would help make science less threatening and probably gain better background knowledge for how to engage them more in participation.


Pinto, W. (2016, October 5). Social management and governance network of public policies - Co producing a technology in social management with the Calafate Women’s Colletive of Salvador-Bahia Brazil. IMTD.

In response to the question, “How to approach indigenous or local communities successfully with outside knowledge/ideas?”, Walter Pinto Jr. noted several key aspects to the project: he advised to get local leaders to legitimize work, to participate in active listening and hear their stories and their issues, to be sincere in your thoughts and actions, to be flexible to their schedule and hours, to make sure to not to over promise, to be organized but at the same time be flexible if plans fall through, to design strategies to communicate with different parts of the community, to do a lot of observation of the culture, structure and how they organize, to understand that it takes some time to the gain confidence and trust of the target community, to always be transparent with intentions and lastly, he advised to arrive with good intentions but to let the ideas develop with the community and let them communicate and change them in terms of their needs to get the best and most sustainable result.


Salick, J., & Byg, A. (2007). Indigenous peoples and climate change. Oxford, UK: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. Retrieved from:

This article analyzes the different consequences of climate change, how many indigenous peoples are on the front lines of it and talks about the importance of understanding indigenous people’s beliefs on the issue. It emphasizes the importance of an ethnocentric perspective on the issue to gain better understanding and cooperation. It ends with a call to action very similar to that of CCHS: "We propose conjoined research and action with indigenous peoples to afford them more prominence in international climate change discussion and action.


International Water Monitoring Organizations

African Ministers’ Council on Water (AMCOW)

AMCOW was founded in 2002 in Nigeria. Its key mission is to promote cooperation, social and economic development among member states through an effective management of continents water resources.


European Water Partnership

It is an independent non-profit structured as a member organization. It not only coordinates initiatives and activities in international water issues but also undertakes worldwide promotion of European expertise related to water.


Global Water Partnership

The mission of the organization is to develop and advance governance and management of water resources for sustainable development.


International Association of Hydrologists

Their mission is to deepen the understanding, wise use and protection of groundwater throughout the world. They aim at raising awareness of groundwater issues and work with national and international agencies to promote the use of groundwater to ensure ready access to safe drinking water.


International Association of Hydrological Sciences

The objectives of the association are:

  • To study the hydrological cycle of the Earth and its waters, including their physical, chemical and biological cycles, how it relates to climate.
  • To study erosion and sedimentation and their relation to hydrological cycle
  • To examine the hydrological aspects of the use and management of water resources and their change under influence of man’s activities


International Water Association

The association connects people of the highest caliber together to share knowledge, experience and know-how about the most pressing water issues and new solutions for them.


Joint Monitoring Program

The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for water supply and sanitation is a UN mechanism with task to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goal relating to drinking water and sanitation.



It is the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries in the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology. Its key activity is to develop concepts and technologies which are later adapted to the different physical and socio-economic conditions.



Stockholm International Water Institute is a body that seeks sustainable solutions to the world’s most pressing water issues and escalating water crisis.


UNEP  - GEMS Water

The United Nations Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) Water Programme is dedicated to providing environmental water quality data and information of the highest integrity.



UNESCO – World Water Assessment Programme

The programme seeks ways to develop tools and skills needed to achieve a better understanding of the processes, management and policies that can improve the supply and quality of global freshwater resources.


The UN – Water

It is a United Nations inter-agency coordination mechanism for all freshwater related issues, including sanitation. The Agency encompasses development, assessment, management, monitoring and use of freshwater.


World Water Council

The Council is an international multi-stakeholder platform. It’s mission is to promote awareness, to build political commitment, trigger action on critical water issues at all levels to develop an effective management and use of water.

Environmental Diplomacy

Blumstein, S., & Pohl, B. (2016). Water and climate diplomacy, integrative approaches for adaptive action in transboundary river basins. Berlin: Adelphi. Retrieved from:

This report focuses on governance instruments for transboundary waters that address the interrelated objectives of climate change adaptation, sustainable development, and political stability. In conclusion, this report highlights several recommendations including: linking basin institutions to local and national support, incorporating the ability to adapt into new and existing into basin institutions, and promoting information sharing.


United Nations Department of Political Affairs, & United Nations Environment Programme. (2015). Natural resources and conflict: A guide for mediation practitioners.  New York, NY: United Nations Department of Political Affairs and United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved from:

Natural Resources and Conflict” is a research project carried out by Policy and Mediation Division of the United Nations Department of Political Affairs (DPA/PMD) in collaboration with Environmental Cooperation for Peacebuilding initiative of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This project was also supported by Columbia University's Center for International Conflict Resolution, the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD) and the EU-UN Global PArtnership on Land, Natural Resources and Conflict Prevention. This guide is divided into two parts:

PART A presents methodology for mediating natural resource conflicts. It examines challenges that may arise when mediating conflicts.

PART B is dedicated to case-studies of good practices in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Canada, Ecuador, Peru, India, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan and Sudan.


United Nations Development Programme, & United Nations Environment Programme. (2013). The role of natural resources in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration: Addressing risks and seizing opportunities. New York, NY: United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved from:

The focus of the report is the role of natural resources in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs (DDR). The report highlights several recommendations for  effectively integrating natural resource concerns into DDR programs, for the purpose of  ensuring more sustainable and effective initiatives.  Primary conclusions include how the inclusion of natural resources is useful for not just economic recovery, but other systemic factors such as social reintegration, reconciliation, and promoting gender-responsive programming as well.


Citizen Science

Bonney, R., Cooper C. B., Dickinson, J., Kelling, S., Phillips, T., Rosenberg,  K. V., & Shirk, J. (2009) Citizen science: A developing tool for expanding science knowledge and scientific literacy.” Oxford Journal of BioScience, 59(11), 977–84. Retrieved from:

doi:10.1525/bio.2009.59.11.9 .

This article dives into a brief history of citizen science. It emphasizes that citizen science is nothing new, it has been around since the late 1800s, however it has recently entered a new era. With a focus of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology this article discusses the procedures necessary for successful citizen science project.


Brossard, D., Lewenstein, B., & Bonney, R. (2005). Scientific knowledge and attitude change: the impact of a citizen science project. International Journal of Science Education, 27(9), 1099–1121. Retrieved from:


This report is an evaluation of a specific citizen-science project focused on the study of cavity-nesting birds. The evaluation asked participants various questions in order to get a better understanding of the profile of said participants as well as their knowledge on science through a pre-assessment and a post-assessment. The assessments also helped to measure changes in opinions and attitudes. The surveys conducted also helped those carrying out citizen-science projects to get a better understanding of the impact of these projects. Reflecting on the evaluation, the authors admit cons to the evaluation and ways to improve such evaluations for the future. There are not many evaluations of this sort pertaining to citizen science, so this assessment helps to provide a better quantitative understanding of the impact of citizen science.


Cohn, J. P. (2008). Citizen science: can volunteers do real research.” American Institute of Biological Sciences, 58(3), 192–97. Retrieved from:


Cohn demonstrates that citizen scientists can play a very necessary role in scientific research. Being that the large majority of those who are citizen scientists have either a background in science or just plain love nature, it is no question that these people are qualified and vital. Although researchers may have to alter some of the information they are looking for, it does not cause so much of an issue that they would rather pay graduate students or other researchers. The bottom line is that citizen scientists are nearly as effective as graduate students or other researchers and a lot cheaper.


Dickinson, J. L., Zuckerberg B., & Bonter D. N. (2010) Citizen science as an ecological research tool: Challenges and benefits. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 41, 149-72. Retrieved from:

This article highlights how citizen science, despite some limitations, is an important supplemental tool to research projects. Dickinson et al. state that citizen science cannot be in-depth and can suffer from observer variation and bias. However, for hypothesis driven information gathering that requires broad spatial and temporal reach participatory citizen science becomes extremely useful. Additionally, over the course of long term projects, citizen science data collection is shown to improve over time.


Hochachka, W. M., Fink, D., Hutchinson, R. A., Sheldon, D., Wong, W., & Kelling, S. (2012). Data-intensive science applied to broad-scale citizen science. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(2), 130–37. Retrieved from:


This article discusses how intensive methods of data collection are vital in scientific observations and data collection. For Hochachka et al., existing methods of analysis may not always be the best for citizen science projects and that there are unique and inherent challenges to broad-scale citizen science data sets. However, the large amount of data collected by citizen-scientists help professional scientists in better coordinating national and international conservation efforts.


Lindenmayer, D. B., & Likens, G. E. (2009). Adaptive monitoring: A new paradigm for long-term research and monitoring. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24(9), 482–86. Retrieved from:


This article proposes a new adaptive monitoring model for long-term research. Designed to addresses problems of poor planning or lack of focus that can render results unusable, this model develops questions early, sets clear objectives and enables programs to evolve repeatedly as new information emerges and research questions change. It mentions that many factors can undermine the credibility of long-term research and focuses on three key issue in long-term research: short-term funding, poor statistical planning, and a prolonged disagreement on what to actually monitor. It provides a few examples of adaptive monitoring and includes some helpful charts and illustrations.


Silvertown, J. (2009). A new dawn for citizen science. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24(9), 467–71. Retrieved from:

doi:10.1016/j.tree.2009.03.017 .

This article explores the phenomenon of citizen science and takes a brief look at the origins. After touching on the origins, the author talks about citizen science of today. While highlighting the importance of citizen science, it is made clear that large projects are nearly impossible without volunteers. Finally, the author speaks about the challenges as well as the opportunities facing citizen science.


Stilgoe, J., & Lock, S. J. (2014). Why should we promote public engagement with science. Public Understanding of Science, 23(1), 4–15. Retrieved From:


Twenty years ago, the journal Public Understanding of Science was launched as the first forum for debating the question of “why we should promote the public understanding of science”. In this issue, the article reflects on what has changed over the last two decades, what has remained the same, and what dimensions of public engagement in the science and technology community have been neglected or under-examined. It includes short perspectives from leading scholars and practitioners to draw from a range of theoretical, disciplinary and geographical contexts as well as other recent insights from literature on the issue.


Trumbull, D. J., Bonney, R., Bascom, D., & Cabral, A. (2000) Thinking scientifically during participation in a citizen-science project. Science Education, 84(2), 265–75. Retrieved from:;2-5/abstract

Conducted by the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, this study examines over 700 letters from participants of citizen-science projects to analyze how scientific thinking developed through participation. Previously, little research has been done on the education impacts of participatory science. Trumbull et al. find that nearly 80% of the participants had engaged in thinking processes similar to those of expert scientific investigations. It should be noted that the data that was analyzed was gathered serendipitously and therefore should be regarded as tentative.

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